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Growing Pains

Confusing Storytelling

Me And My Pal (USA 1933)

As film transitioned into narrative, early attempts often had audiences scratching their heads–much like the often befuddled comedic duo Laurel and Hardy (pictured). Film reviews from about 1904-1907 suggest that audiences were often faced with films that had all the clarity and logic of a mismatched jigsaw puzzle!

Growing Pains

Shorts or Features?

Keaton Sleeping on the Job

In the early days of narrative cinema, producers and studios didn’t think audiences would stay engaged (or awake!) for anything longer than 30 minutes. This frustrated a lot of visionary filmmakers–such as the legendary comic Buster Keaton, pictured here in “Sherlock, Jr.” However, audiences proved the executives wrong, and by 1920, the American film industry primarily made feature-length films.

Growing Pains

Patent Wars

film strip

The nascent film industry was plagued by massive patent wars over the technology for filming and exhibition. In 1908, Thomas Edison invited rivals to form a monopolistic concern called the Motion Picture Producer’s Association to control the use of film technology and collect royalties on all American films made and exhibited. Click the “Find Out More” button and read this entertaining (though not entirely accurate) article from Ars Technica.

Developing Narrative Clarity & Hollywood Style

The Continuity System

The development of the cinematic art form had to undergo an evolution in order to survive and thrive. Several key innovators–some of whom you will recognize from last week’s readings–and one from this week’s lecture, pushed the development of cinematic language. They helped discover how cinema could be a unique art form, and how film could be edited to create story and narrative clarity. Eventually, their discoveries became part of what we now call the Continuity System–the foundation of modern cinematic language. Watch this great short video from Filmmaker IQ, and then read the next set of posts to help you focus on the key information that will be on exams.

Developing Narrative Clarity & Hollywood Style

Causal Linkages

Cause and Effect

This wonderful sequence from a Buster Keaton and Fatty Arbuckle one-reeler exemplifies the first rule for creating narrative clarity: every action has a reaction/for every cause, there is an effect. For fun, click the “Find Out More” button to see more of these pratfall sequences and read about Keaton and Arbuckle!

Developing Narrative Clarity & Hollywood Style

Motivated Characters

Douglas Fairbanks

Your characters must motivate the action. A goal-oriented protagonist is key to a clear, engaging story. Pictured here is early movie star Douglas Fairbanks, whose many starring roles exemplified the active protagonist–from Thief of Baghdad to The Black Pirate to Robin Hood.

Developing Narrative Clarity & Hollywood Style

Camera Distance: The 9-Foot Rule

Examples of the 9-Foot Rule

D.W. Griffith and others quickly discovered that a closer camera actually helped the action feel more natural. So rather than use wide shots that mimicked the view of a stage play, they established the “9-foot rule.” This made the standard shot a 3/4 shot, cutting the character off just below the knee (the approximate framing achieved by a camera 9 feet away from the subject).

Developing Narrative Clarity & Hollywood Style

Camera Distance: The Close-Up

The Close-up shot

D.W. Griffith is largely responsible for popularizing the close-up shot. He realized it was the best way to allow the actors to convey intense emotion and draw the audience into the scene. We would not feel Lillian Gish’s sorrow in Way Down East (1920), pictured above left, if the camera was placed too far away for us to see the tears in her eyes.

Developing Narrative Clarity & Hollywood Style

Color

Handtinted color frames

Filmmakers began experimenting with color as a storytelling tool long before the advent of color process film stock. Sequences were hand-tinted in colors that helped to convey mood and setting. In Way Down East (1920), blue is used for night scenes (and romance), yellow for warm indoor settings, and red for daytime outdoor settings.

Developing Narrative Clarity & Hollywood Style

Intertitles

Intertitles

Filmmakers began using intertitles to help fill in the dialogue and set the scene. Click the “FInd Out More” button to see a fun and slightly shocking collection of intertitles on Tumblr. Note the how carefully many of these were designed–from the typeface choices and decorative elements, and even animation! This striking example is from The Cat and the Canary (1927).

Developing Narrative Clarity & Hollywood Style

Film Style, 1908-1920


“How Motion Pictures Became the Movies, 1908-1920” – a lecture by David Bordwell. Bordwell is arguably the preeminent film scholar of this generation. This lecture contains all you need to know and more about the development of film style during this period, with lots of image-based examples. Skim through this, especially if you are still confused about the Continuity System. (Side note: my slides are better looking than his!)

The Continuity System

Analytical Editing

An example of Analytical editing

The technique of Analytical Editing is now standard for Hollywood filmmaking–so standard, we probably don’t even notice it! Scene Analysis or Analytical Editing is the process of breaking up a single scene into multiple shots–all from different angles and distance. This short scene from Sherlock, Jr. (1924) is broken up into three distinct framings (plus an insert shot)–see if you can identify them. Just a few years earlier, such a scene would have been shot from a single wide angle.